**Joseph
SILK (****Oxford**** ****University****) &
Jean-Philippe UZAN (IAP)**

**Cosmology**

*7 lectures: 19, 20, 21, 22 September, 2, 3, **4 October 2006*

*19 Sept: J. Silk*

1a. Evidence for dark matter: galaxy rotation curves, clusters of galaxies,
large-scale clustering, gravitational lensing)

1b. Baryonic dark matter: primordial nucleosynthesis,
CMB, IGM, clusters, microlensing

*20 Sept: JSilk*

2. Nonbaryonic dark matter: candidates, direct
detection, indirect detection, cold dark matter

*21 Sept: J.P. Uzan*

__Part____ ____Ia__** :** Cosmological
models (1)

1. __Introduction__

*Goals of cosmology, limitations*.

1. __Uniformity
Principles__

*Hypothesis underlying the construction of
cosmological models.*

1. *gravity*

2. *nature of
matter*

3. *cosmological
and Copernician principles*

4. *topology*

2. __Homogeneous and
isotropic universe models__

*Homogeneity, isotropy, constant curvature
space, FLRW spacetime, conformal time, Killing
vectors.*

1. __Kinematics of
FLRW models__

*Hubble law, light, redshift,
test particle.*

1. __Dynamics of
FLRW models__

*Geometric quantities, matter, Friedmann
equations, some solutions, reduced form, dynamical system approach.*

1. __Time and
distances__

*Age of the universe, look-back time, angular
distance, luminosity distance, duality relation, units.*

*22 Sept: J.P. Uzan*

** Part Ib:**
Cosmological models (2)

1. __Horizons__

*Event horizon, particle horizon,
Penrose-Carter diagrams.*

1. __The hot
big-bang model__

*Hubble constant, age of the universe, thermal history,
nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background.*

1. __Beyond FLRW
models__

*3+1 covariant approach, generalized Hubble law, Raychaudhuri equation, generalized Friedmann
equation, Killing vectors, Bianchi I, Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi.*

__9- ____Problems and
open questions__

*02 Oct: J. Silk*

3a. Galaxy formation: Nonlinear theory, hierarchical growth, first stars, chemical
evolution

3b. Formation of spiral galaxies: angular momentum, disk instability, star
formation rate, Tully-Fisher relation

4a. Formation of elliptical galaxies: mergers, spheroid formation, fundamental
plane

4b. Active galactic nuclei and quasars: Role of supermassive
black holes, scaling relations

*03 Oct: J.P. Uzan*

** Part IIa: **cosmological
perturbation theory (1)

1. __Introduction__

1. __Newtonian
perturbation theory__

*Static spacetime, expanding spacetime,
growth factor, toward the non-linear regime*.

1. __Gauge invariant
cosmological perturbations__

*Gauge problem, gauge invariant metric
perturbations, matter, perturbation equations.*

1. __Some solutions__

*Vector modes,
tensor modes, scalar modes.*

1. __Power spectrum
of density perturbation__

*04 Oct: J.P. Uzan*

** Part IIb:** cosmological perturbation theory
(2)

1. __CMB
anisotropies__

*Sachs-Wolfe formula, angular power spectrum,
toward the kinetic approach.*

*See also lecture by F. Bouchet
for observational aspects*.

1. __Weak lensing__

*Principle, weak lensing by
large scale structures, Sachs equation, cosmic shear.*

*See also lecture by Y. Mellier
for observational aspects*

1. __Origin of the
perturbations: inflation__

*Principle, implementation, slow-roll conditions, zoo
of models, origin of fluctuations, generic prediction, WMAP, eternal inflation*

*See also lecture by V. Mukhanov
for extended discussion*.

1. __Conclusions__

*Satus** of the model, open
issues.*

Plots shown in the lectures

Some reference articles:

G.F.R.
Ellis, 1975, Cosmology and verifiability.

J.
Bernstein, 1989, Cosmological helium
production simplified.

D. Lyth, 1993, introduction to
cosmology.

H. van Elst and G.F.R Ellis, 1998, Cosmological models.

K.
Olive et al., 2000, Primordial nucleosynthesis: theory and observations.

M.
Bartelmann and P.
Schneider, 2001, weak gravitational lensing.

Y. Mellier, 2003, Gravitational
lensing by large scale structures.

F. Bernardeau et al., 2002, large
scale structures of the universe and cosmological perturbation theory.

F.
Bernardeau, 2003, dark matter, dark energy...

G.F.R.
Ellis, 2004, issues on the philosophy of cosmology, Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology, **astro-ph/0602280 .**

A. Linde, Particle Physics and Inflationary Cosmology, **hep-th/0503203**.

Mukhanov, Feldmann,
Brandenberger, 1992, Theory
of cosmological perturbations.